THE ACROPOLIS THROUGH THE CENTURIES
The historic course of the city can be seen by the condition of which the monuments of the Acropolis were found throughout the centuries. In 267, the interior of the Parthenon was partially destroyed by a fire – to be repaired in 361-363 – most probably by the Emperor Julianus. The decrees of Theodosius the 2nd in 437 turned the monuments into Christian churches. In the 12th Century they became palaces, while much later in 1456, the Parthenon was deemed a Muslim mosque.
During the Ottoman domination, the Erechtheion was used as a harem and the Propylaea was utilized as an ammunition armory, which in fact caused an explosion in 1640 that damaged a section of the central building. Half a century later, in 1686, the Temple of Athena - Nike was demolished by the Ottoman Empire. A year later, in 1687, the Parthenon saw its greatest catastrophe. The Venetians, led by Admiral Francisco Morozini, bombed the Acropolis from Philopappou Hill during a siege on the Turks – whom had stored their gunpowder there. Up until that time, the structures were in good condition.
After the end of the Greek War if Independence in 1821, the New Greek GovernmentĘs first orders of business were to excavate, restore and conserve the monuments. In 1835, the first excavations began on the Sacred Rock of the Acropolis and, in the same year, L. Ross restored the Temple of Nike Aptera. The excavations, under the supervision of K. Pittakis, P. Kavvadias and G. Kawerau lasted until 1890. It has been documented that Mr. K. Pittakis carried out the first restoration works of the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, and the Propylaea during the period of 1830-1863.
From 1898 until 1939, the restorative programs of N. Balanou were carried out, while from 1975 until present time, the Committee of Preservation of the Monuments of the Acropolis have been charged with the restoration and care of the monuments. Their main enemies are, of course, the atmospheric pollution and acid rain of the Attica sky.
Acropolis and Parthenon (Archaeological Area)
10555 Athens (Greece)
Tel. +30 210 - 3214172
HOW TO GET THERE
BY ATHENS METRO: 2 (Red Line), Station "Akropolis"
BY BUS: 024, 040, 057, 103, 106, 108, 111, 126, 134, 135, 136, 137, 155, 206, 208, 227, 230, 237, 856, A2, A3, A4, B2, B3, B4, E2, E22
TROLLEY: 1, 5, 15
BY FOOT: From Syntagma Square, follow Filellinon Street to Vasilissis Amalias Avenue, until you meet the walkway of Dionysiou Aeropagitou. Follow it all the way up and you will see the Acropolis on your right hand side.
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