From the excavations of 1910 the identity of the meeting place of the principal assembly of the democracy of Ancient Athens (Ecclesia) from 6th Century B.C. was confirmed to be Pnyx (or Pnyka).

Further excavations on a larger scale between 1930 and 1937 were undertaken in order to make clear the topographical and architectural foundation of the area of Pnyx.

With the passage of time, the original foundation of Pnyx changed, with the reversal of the spectator seats and the speakerʼs area. In fact, these changes took place during three building periods. During the first period, the natural side of the hill was used as hollow of the theater – while on the north side, a straight analemma wall was constructed. Its orientation was reversed during the second building period where a semi-circle analemma wall was made and podium was added on the south side of the Pnyx Hill.


In the third period was when the size and scale of Pnyx was essentially enhanced and the analemma wall was constructed out of large, cube shaped stones and a new podium was built.

The most important monuments of Pnyx are the two large stoas that frame the south side of the spacious flat level above the podium, the largest structure between the two and the large rectangular structure above the podium, for the Altar of Zeus Agoraios – all from the third building period. In excavations during 1803 small plaques were discovered that told of the existence of the Sanctuary of Zeus Hypsistos, from which the floors, stairs and some niches are saved to this day.

The final formation of Pnyx came after the reign of Lycurgus but many of the programmed plans that existed went unfinished due economic Problems.