The Acropolis through the Centuries

The Acropolis through the Centuries

The historic course of the city can be seen by the condition of which the monuments of the Acropolis were found throughout the centuries.

In 267 B.C., the interior of the Parthenon Temple was partially destroyed by a fire – to be repaired in 361-363 B.C. – most probably by the Emperor Juliano. The decrees of Theodosius the 2nd in 437 B.C. turned the monuments into Christian churches. In the 12th Century B.C. they became palaces, while much later in 1456, the Parthenon was deemed a Muslim mosque.

During the Ottoman domination, the Erechtheio was used as a harem and the Propylaia was utilized as an ammunition armory, which in fact caused an explosion in 1640 that damaged a section of the central building. Half a century later, in 1686, the Temple of Athena Nike was demolished by the Ottoman Empire. A year later, in 1687, the Parthenon saw its greatest catastrophe. The Venetians, led by Admiral Francisco Morozini, bombed the Acropolis from Philopappou Hill during a siege on the Turks – whom had stored their gunpowder there. Up until that time, the structures were in good condition.

After the end of the Greek Revolution in 1821, the New Greek Government's first orders of business were to excavate, restore and conserve the monuments. In 1835, the first excavations began on the Hill of the Acropolis and, in the same year, L. Ross restored the Temple of Athena Nike. The excavations, under the supervision of K. Pittakes, P. Kavvadias and G. Kawerau lasted until 1890. It has been documented that Mr. K. Pittakes carried out the first restoration works of the Parthenon, the Erechtheio, and the Propylaia during the period of 1830-1863.

From 1898 until 1939, the restorative programs of N. Balanou were carried out, while from 1975 until present time, the Committee of Preservation of the Monuments of the Acropolis have been charged with the restoration and care of the monuments. Their main enemies are, of course, the atmospheric pollution and acid rain of the Attica sky.


Acropolis & Parthenon
The Acropolis through the Centuries
The Parthenon Temple
The Erechtheio
Temple of Athena Nike
The Propylaia

▶︎ Acropolis & Parthenon
▶︎ Odeon of Herodes Atticus
▶︎ Theater of Dionysus
▶︎ Ancient Agora & Hephaestus Temple
▶︎ Roman Agora & Hadrian's Library
▶︎ Temple of Olympian Zeus
▶︎ Kerameikos (Ancient Cemetery)
▶︎ Kallimarmaro (Ancient Marble Stadium)
▶︎ Lyceum of Aristotles
▶︎ Academy of Plato
▶︎ Areopagus (Ancient Court)
▶︎ Choragic Monument of Lysicrates
▶︎ Pnyx (Birthplace of Democracy)
▶︎ Monument of Phillopappou
▶︎ Ancient Sights nearby Athens