Ottoman Occupation (1456-1821)

Ottoman Occupation (1456-1821)

Athens was occupied by Ottoman troops in 1456 and soon the Parthenon was turned into a mosque. The Ottoman control in the city was divided into 2 phases. The second of which is characterized by higher movement.

The Venetians besieged the city during the Venetian-Turkish War in the 17th Century, while in the 18th Century there were a series of uprisings that were due, among other things, to the mismanagement of the Turks. Ottoman rule in Athens finally ended in 1833.

First Period of Ottoman Occupation (1456-1687)

Conquest of the city by the Ottoman Empire.

Conquest of the Acropolis by the Ottoman army. The Parthenon Temple is converted into a mosque. Mehmet΄s II "the Conqueror" visit to Athens is probably the reason why the city was given special privileges. Despite this, the corrupt local administration of the Ottoman dignitary did not allow the city to develop.

1522 - 1523
Athens suffers an epidemic.

Second Period of Ottoman Occupation (1687-1821)

Athens enters the Venetian-Turkish War from 1684-1699, with disastrous results. Initially, the Venetian army led by the Swedish General, Knigsmark seizes the city. It is tragic that during the seizing of the Acropolis, a Venetian shell blew up the roof of the Parthenon as well as a part of it that had been converted by the Turks into a gunpowder storeroom. On December 27th, the Hanoverian armies abandon Athens and on April 9th, the Venetians leave. The Venetian Admiral Francisco Morozini, takes along the Lions of the Acropolis, Thissio and the Port of Piraeus. The Greek citizens, fearing a massacre, scattered to nearby Venetian occupied areas.

Scattered Athenians begin to return to their homeland after the Sultan granted amnesty.

Rebellion of the Greek and Turkish citizens of Athens against the corrupt city ruler, Sari-Muselimi.

Athens is declared property of the Sultan and belonging to the Treasury of the Ottoman Empire. The collection of taxes is assigned to a contractor.

Period of governance of Athens by the ruler Hadji Haseki. Esme, the sister of the Sultan Selim III and mistress of Haseki, bought the city for him and granted him the taxes. Haseki's rule became known for its austerity and its harshness. Due to attacks by Albanian, epidemics and mostly due to Haseki's conflicts with his Ottoman opponents, the city of Athens suffers greatly.

Suleiman is declared ruler, causing a strong reaction by the Turkish citizens of Athens.

The British Lord Elgin is granted permission by the Sultan to do excavation in Athens. In reality, he extracts priceless treasures for the Acropolis, to include the sculptures of the Parthenon. The so-called, "Elgin Marbles", ended up at the British Museum of London after many mis-adventures. Greece puts on great strain for their return.

▶︎ Ottoman Occupation (1456-1821)
▶︎ Greek War of Independence (1821-1833)
▶︎ 19th Century (1834-1900)
▶︎ 20th & 21st Century (1901-2004)