Popularly known as the "Mitrópolis", this massive, 3-aisled basilica is the cathedral church of the Archbishop of Athens and all Greece. Construction was begun in 1842 by Bavarian, Greek, and French architects with King Otto and Queen Amalia laying the cornerstone. The city literally incorporated its past into this church. Much of the building material used was debris (spolia) from 72 ruined or razed city churches.
As such, it is the site of state funerals and the church politicians and visiting dignitaries attend when in the city. As for the Panagia Gorgoepikoos (def. "Our Lady Who Swiftly Hears"), it is lovingly referred to as the Mikri Mitropoli (def. "Little Cathedral") due to its smaller nature of only 25 feet long by 40 feet wide (12th Century).
The area around Mitropoleos Square is well-known for its religious artifacts shops. It is also discerned by the fact that it is the border between the areas of Monastiraki and Plaka. More specifically, following Pandrossou Street, after the square, is the area of Monastiraki.